Study Validating MoA of Intranasal Foralumab in Alzheimer’s Disease Published in the Prestigious Journal PNAS, Following FDA IND Clearance
- The authors conclude that “nasal anti-CD3 has the potential to be a non-toxic novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)”
- FDA has cleared the IND for intranasal foralumab, a fully human anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, for human study in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease
- The publication shows anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) administered intranasally, ameliorates disease in a 3xTg model of Alzheimer’s disease by targeting microglial activation in the brain, while expanding regulatory T cells in the periphery
- Remarkably, this reduced microglial activation and improved cognition occurs independent of amyloid beta disposition.
This study shows that intranasal anti-CD3 ameliorates disease in a rodent model of AD by targeting microglial activation in the brain and brain gene expression independent of affecting amyloid beta deposition. These studies identify a novel approach to treat Alzheimer's disease.
The publication can be found at : https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.2309221120
“We’ve now have had two seminal publications in the esteemed journal PNAS related to novel and significant research on intranasal anti-CD3. It has been established through both publications that intranasal anti-CD3 positively modulates the immune system allowing Tiziana to explore foralumab in multiple neuro-inflammatory disease indications in addition to our ongoing research in non-active secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. We believe this scientific publication, along with the groundbreaking research continuously being conducted by our partners at Brigham and Women’s Hospital led by
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and microglial activation. Neuroinflammation is a major component of AD. Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain that help both maintain homeostasis and react to injury. Studies showing activated microglia and astrocytes surrounding Aβ plaques suggest significant involvement of inflammatory pathways in Alzheimer’s disease. Therapies targeting Aβ have shown positive effects in subjects with AD. Nasal anti-CD3 has been shown to treat animals with a progressive form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis, by inducing regulatory T cells that dampen microglial inflammation in the brain.
In this study, mice were treated three times a week with intranasal anti-CD3 for five months and compared against isotype control or saline. In the treated mice, the study found modulation of the activated microglia phenotype, changes in gene expression patterns in the brain and improved cognition, which all occurred independent of affecting amyloid beta deposition. Modulation of activated microglia was measured in treated mice by sorting the microglia using microglia-specific markers and performing a gene expression analysis using the Nanostring mouse myeloid panel and comparing treated mice versus control. Changes in gene expression were measured in the cortex and hippocampus. Cognition was measured including spatial learning and long- and short- term memories as assessed by the Morris water maze and the novel arm Y-maze behavioral test. Amyloid beta accumulation was measured by immunofluorescence in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex areas of the brain.
Activated T cells play an important role in the inflammatory process. Foralumab, the only fully human anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), binds to the T cell receptor and dampens inflammation by modulating T cell function, thereby suppressing effector features in multiple immune cell subsets, an effect demonstrated in patients with COVID and with multiple sclerosis, as well as in healthy normal subjects. Intranasal foralumab Phase 2 trials are expected to start in Q3 2023 in patients with non-active SPMS immunomodulation by nasal anti-CD3 mAb represents a novel avenue for treatment of inflammatory human diseases that affects the brain and other organs.2,3
About Tiziana Life Sciences
Tiziana Life Sciences is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing breakthrough therapies using transformational drug delivery technologies to enable alternative routes of immunotherapy. Tiziana’s innovative nasal, oral and inhalation approaches in development have the potential to provide an improvement in efficacy as well as safety and tolerability compared to intravenous (IV) delivery. Tiziana’s lead candidate, intranasal foralumab, the only fully human anti-CD3 mAb, has demonstrated a favorable safety profile and clinical response in patients in studies to date. Tiziana’s technology for alternative routes of immunotherapy has been patented with several applications pending and is expected to allow for broad pipeline applications.
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Source: Tiziana Life Sciences Ltd.